1Milazzo Refinery (RAM), in line with the objectives of development and sustainability defined jointly with its shareholders, Eni and Kuwait Petroleum Italiana, has signed a collaboration agreement with Eni’s Research and Technological Innovation Department to launch a study into technology for the production of advanced biofuels. With a view to the Circular Economy and sustainable development, the initiative envisages the utilisation of citrus processing waste in Sicily for the production of advanced bioethanol through the development of an integrated process with the Sicilian territory’s supply chain. As stated in the European RED II (Renewable Energy Directive), the pulp, a by-product of the food industry consisting of the waste from lemons and oranges subjected to pressing, has been included in Annex IX part A among the so-called ‘Advanced’ raw materials, and thanks to the technology now being studied, it can be transformed into ethanol, an advanced biofuel that guarantees a 65% saving in CO2 emissions compared to petrol of fossil origin. Moreover, it can immediately be used within the refinery’s processing cycle to replace or supplement the bioethanol currently supplied. The use of bioethanol produced from waste and scrap such as pulp is a concrete step towards the circular economy and energy transition and can make a significant contribution to the decarbonisation of the transport sector.